Basically, there exist four valves to pump the hart and to help blood to flow at proper rate and in correct direction. The valves tend to open and close with every heart beat. However, if the valves are found not to properly open or close, then there is definitely some trouble with it. Such issues will require the patient to undergo valve replacement surgery.
Why require heart replacement surgery?
Valves could get damaged due to aging or disease. If valves are found not to open properly, then it can be stenosis. It s regarded to be an issue related to abnormal aortic valve that narrows down. The valve is required to open fully to allow appropriate blood amount to flow through it. Regurgitation takes place, if the valve fails to close properly. In this case, blood is found leak back onto the other portions of the heart.
The physician after diagnosing the issue will recommend adequate treatments. This will depend upon heart valve that is involved combined with valve disease severity. The treatments are provided for:
- Tricuspid valve disease
- Pulmonary valve disease
- Mitral valve disease
- Aortic valve disease
Some medical treatments recommended for valve replacement surgery in India
Procedures and tests suggested by the physician will be required to evaluate the heart condition. Few of them are as follows:
- Signal averaged ECG
- Holter monitor
- Chest X-ray
- Cardiac Catheterization
- Chest CT Scan
- MRI of heart
- Electrophysiological studies
- Ultrafast CT Scan
- Radionuclide angiography
- Myocardial perfusion scans
Repairing of the diseased valve may be suggested by the physician by making use of a ring to support the original valve. The other option can be to eliminate the whole valve and to replace it using artificial valve. These days, artificial mechanical valves can be found of plastic, tissue availed from animal valves or metal. Human valves are also used taken from cadavers.
The person experiencing diseased or damaged heart valve is likely to feel the following symptoms:
- Chest pain
- Heart palpitations
- Difficulty in breathing
- Fluid retention causing rapid weight gain
- Swelling of the abdomen, ankles or feet
Risks associated with replacement of heart valves
There are some risks include like:
- Bleeding after or during the surgical procedure
- Infection at incision site
- Blood clots causing lung, stroke or heart attack
- Infect at incision site
- Abnormal heart rhythms
- Breathing issues
What is to be expected after the procedure?
For several days, the patient will be monitored closely by the physicians at the hospital setting, including the time spent at the ICU. The patient will remain connected to monitors to check constantly his/her blood pressure, oxygen level, breathing rate and heart. During this time, it is crucial to cough as well as take deep breaths, to ensure that the lugs are not affected by mucus to cause pneumonia. Pain medication offered will keep the patient comfortable.